Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Despite your best intentions and efforts, it is inevitable: At some point in your life, you will be 1 . Mistakes can be hard to digest, so sometimes we 2 down rather than face them. Our confirmation bias kicks in, causing us to seek out 3 to prove what we already believe.
Psychologists call this cognitive dissonance—the stress we experience when we hold two 4 thoughts, beliefs, opinions or attitudes. For example, you might believe you are a kind and fair person, so when you 5 cut someone off, you experience 6 .
“Cognitive dissonance is what we feel when the self-concept—I’m smart, I’m kind, I’m convinced this belief is true—is 7 by evidence that we did something that wasn’t smart, that we did something that 8 another person, that the belief isn’t true” said Carol Tavris, a co-author of the book Mistakes Were Made (But Not by Me).
When we 9 for being wrong, we have to accept this dissonance, and that is unpleasant. On the other hand, research has shown that it can feel good to stick to our 10 . One study, published in the European Journal of Social Psychology, found that people who refused to apologize after a mistake had more 11 and felt more in control and 12 than those who did not 13 .
14 how exactly do you change your behavior and learn to embrace your mistakes? The first step is to 15 cognitive dissonance in action. Your mind will go to great 16 to preserve your sense of identity, so it helps to be aware of what that dissonance feels like. Typically, it 17 as confusion, stress, embarrassment or guilt. Those feelings do not 18 mean you are in the wrong, but you can at least use them as reminders to explore the situation from an impartial perspective and
19 question whether you are at fault. Similarly, learn to recognize your usual justifications and rationalizations. Think of a time you were wrong and knew it, but tried to justify it instead. Remember how it felt to 20 your behavior and pinpoint that feeling as cognitive dissonance the next time it happens.
1. [A] mistaken [B] wrong [C] down [D] upset
2. [A] double [B] fall [C] kneel [D] get
3. [A] reasons [B] materials [C] evidence [D] law
4. [A] related [B] contradictory [C] significant [D] impartial
5. [A] rudely [B] carelessly [C] occasionally [D] hardly
6. [A] frustration [B] dismay [C] setback [D] dissonance
7. [A] proved [B] encouraged [C] threatened [D] supported
8. [A] hurt [B] benefited [C] favored [D] assisted
9. [A] admit [B] apologize [C] account [D] pay
10. [A] concepts [B] ideas [C] guns [D] beliefs
11. [A] self-esteem [B] confidence [C] fears [D] consideration
12. [A] optimistic [B] powerful [C] dependable [D] aggressive
13. [A] refuse [B] respond [C] react [D] realize
14. [A] Because [B] So [C] But [D] Still
15. [A] recognize [B] admit [C] avoid [D] put
16. [A] strength [B] lengths [C] power [D] effort
17. [A] manifests [B] acts [C] takes [D] regards
18. [A] often [B] necessarily [C] usually [D] frequently
19. [A] carefully [B] sincerely [C] objectively [D] frankly
20. [A] rationalize [B] balance [C] correct [D] accept