Section Ⅰ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
People have speculated for centuries about a future without work. Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again 1 that technology is replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 : A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.
A different and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one 4 by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives 5 , people will simply become lazy and depressed. 6 , today’s unemployed don’t seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for 7 Americans. Also, some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addiction 9 poorly-educated, middle-aged people is a shortage of well-paid jobs. Perhaps this is why many 10 the agonizing dullness of a jobless future.
But it doesn’t 11 follow from findings like these that a world without work would be filled with unease. Such visions are based on the 12 of being unemployed in a society built on the concept of employment. In the 13 of work, a society designed with other ends in mind could 14 strikingly different circumstances for the future of labor and leisure. Today, the 15 of work may be a bit overblown. “Many jobs are boring, degrading, unhealthy, and a waste of human potential,” says John Danaher, a lecturer at the National University of Ireland in Galway.
These days, because leisure time is relatively 16 for most workers, people use their free time to counterbalance the intellectual and emotional 17 of their jobs. “When I come home from a hard day’s work, I often feel 18 ,” Danaher says, adding, “In a world in which I don’t have to work, I might feel rather different”—perhaps different enough to throw himself 19 a hobby or a passion project with the intensity usually reserved for
1. [A] boasting [B] warning [C] denying [D] ensuring
2. [A] uncertainty [B] unreliability [C] instability [D] inequality
3. [A] policy [B] guideline [C] prediction [D] resolution
4. [A] measured [B] divided [C] balanced [D] characterized
5. [A] meaning [B] wisdom [C] glory [D] freedom
6. [A] Indeed [B] Instead [C] Thus [D] Nevertheless
7. [A] rich [B] working [C] urban [D] educated
8. [A] substitute [B] requirement [C] compensation [D] explanation
9. [A] under [B] beyond [C] among [D] alongside
10. [A] leave behind [B] worry about [C] make up [D] set aside
11. [A] statistically [B] necessarily [C] occasionally [D] economically
12. [A] downsides [B] chances [C] benefits [D] principles
13. [A] course [B] height [C] face [D] absence
14. [A] disturb [B] restore [C] yield [D] exclude
15. [A] model [B] virtue [C] practice [D] hardship
16. [A] tricky [B] lengthy [C] scarce [D] mysterious
17. [A] threats [B] standards [C] qualities [D] demands
18. [A] tired [B] ignored [C] confused [D] starved
19. [A] off [B] against [C] into [D] behind
20. [A] professional [B] technological [C] educational [D] interpersonal
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
Every Saturday morning, at 9 am, more than 50,000 runners set off to run 5km around their local park. The Parkrun phenomenon began with a dozen friends and has inspired 400 events in the UK and more abroad. Events are free, staffed by thousands of volunteers. Runners range from four years old to grandparents; their times range from Andrew Baddeley’s world record 13 minutes 48 seconds up to an hour.
Parkrun is succeeding where London’s Olympic “legacy” is failing. Ten years ago on Monday, it was announced that the Games of the 30th Olympiad would be in London. Planning documents pledged that the great legacy of the Games would be to lever a nation of sport lovers away from their couches. The population would be fitter, healthier and produce more winners. It has not happened. The number of adults doing weekly sport did rise, by nearly 2 million in the run-up to 2012—but the general population was growing faster. Worse, the numbers are now falling at an accelerating rate. The opposition claims primary school pupils doing at least two hours of sport a week have nearly halved. Obesity has risen among adults and children. Official retrospections continue as to why London 2012 failed to “inspire a generation.” The success of Parkrun offers answers.
Parkrun is not a race but a time trial: Your only competitor is the clock. The ethos welcomes anybody. There is as much joy over a puffed-out first-timer being clapped over the line as there is about top talent shining. The Olympic bidders, by contrast, wanted to get more people doing sport and to produce more elite athletes. The dual aim was mixed up: The stress on success over taking part was intimidating for newcomers.
Indeed, there is something a little absurd in the state getting involved in the planning of such a fundamentally “grassroots” concept as community sports associations. If there is a role for government, it should really be getting involved in providing common goods—making sure there is space for playing fields and the money to pave tennis and netball courts, and encouraging the provision of all these activities in schools. But successive governments have presided over selling green spaces, squeezing money from local authorities and declining attention on sport in education. Instead of wordy, worthy strategies, future governments need to do more to provide the conditions for sport to thrive. Or at least not make them worse.
21. According to Paragraph 1, Parkrun has .
[A] gained great popularity
[B] created many jobs
[C] strengthened community ties
[D] become an official festival
22. The author believes that London’s Olympic “legacy” has failed to .
[A] boost population growth
[B] promote sport participation
[C] improve the city’s image
[D] increase sport hours in schools
23. Parkrun is different from Olympic Games in that it .
[A] aims at discovering talents
[B] focuses on mass competition
[C] does not emphasize elitism
[D] does not attract first-timers
24. With regard to mass sports, the author holds that governments should .
[A] organize “grassroots” sports events
[B] supervise local sports associations
[C] increase funds for sports clubs
[D] invest in public sports facilities
25. The author’s attitude to what UK governments have done for sports is .
[A] tolerant [B] critical