Section I Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
We often tend to associate smiling as the result of a positive event or mood. But research demonstrates that the act of smiling, in and 1 itself, can be the catalyst for joy. Wonderful things, ranging from an 2 mood to a better relationship, can be the result of the 3 act of smiling. Even better, it is a tool that is free, easy and always available.
Even when you aren’t feeling happy, smile can help 4 your mood. Darwin hypothesized, back in 1872, that making changes in our 5 expressions can influence our 6 experience, something he called facial feedback response theory. Psychological research has 7 Darwin’s assertion that expressions do not just result from moods, but actually influence them.
Smiling more may actually 8 your lifespan. Research indicates that smiling may improve heart health by 9 heart rate after stressful events. So, 10 smiling to your health regime of eating well, getting enough sleep and exercising may just add 11 years to your life.
People who smile more tend to be more 12 , joyful and emotionally stable which lends itself to healthier relationships, and thus have longer and more successful 13 . An interesting study published in 2009 found a correlation between smiles in photographs and divorce rates. The larger the smile, the 14 likely divorce was later in life. 15 , those with the smallest smiles or no smiles, were five times more likely to be divorced.
When Mother Teresa said“Every time you smile at someone, it is ... a 16 to that person, a beautiful thing”, she was right. One study 17 by Hewlett Packard found that seeing another’s smile stimulated the heart and 18 more so than eating chocolate or receiving money. This was particularly true 19 viewing the smile of a child. Additionally, research has demonstrated smiling may actually be easily diffused. Research published in the Scandinavian Journal of Psychology examined mimicry, the tendency to mimic the emotional expressions of those around us, and found that it is actually hard to 20 when someone else is smiling.
1. [A] on [B] with [C] by [D] of
2. [A] impressed [B] improved [C] important [D] imposed
3. [A] pure [B] easy [C] simple [D] brief
4. [A] sack [B] shift [C] slip [D] switch
5. [A] facial [B] superficial [C] external [D] inner
6. [A] inward [B] outward [C] emotional [D] explicit
7. [A] formalized [B] declared [C] implemented [D] validated
8. [A] execute [B] expand [C] examine [D] expect
9. [A] accelerating [B] decreasing [C] facilitating [D] increasing
10. [A] leading [B] adding [C] contributing [D] resorting
11. [A] a little [B] little [C] few [D] a few
12. [A] optimistic [B] dispassionate [C] severe [D] cautious
13. [A] career [B] lifespan [C] marriage [D] friendship
14. [A] more [B] worse [C] less [D] better
15. [A] Consequently [B] Moreover [C] Conversely [D] Otherwise
16. [A] gift [B] regard [C] wish [D] grace
17. [A] discovered [B] converted [C] prepared [D] conducted
18. [A] stomach [B] brain [C] mindset [D] desire
19. [A] yet [B] when [C] though [D] unless
20. [A] sneer [B] blink [C] frown [D] breathe
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
“Project gold” and “Project Nexus” sound like plans for bank robberies or military attacks. In reality, they are the names for KPMG’s ongoing attempt to squeeze its 6,700 London employees into ever smaller spaces. Since 2006 the professional-services firm has reduced the number of offices it uses in London from seven to two. By the spring of 2015 everybody will be crammed into one building in CanaryWharf.
Firms have long known that only about half of all desks are in use at any moment, as employees work odd hours or disappear to meetings, but it was difficult to fill the spares. Better IT systems now mean that people need not be tied to a particular desk. They need not even be in the office at all: as cloud computing and virtual offices take off, more people are working from home or from other places, further reducing the need for desks.
Aside from cheapness, there is a motive behind this squashing. Inspired by Silicon Valley, firms are trying to make their offices into “collaborative spaces”, where people bump into each other and chat usefully. KPMG’s redesigned CanaryWharf offices will include lots of “breakout spaces” where employees can relax, and quiet rooms where people can get away from hubbub, says Alastair Young, who is planning the move. He thinks this will both improve productivity and save money.
In this happy new world, offices are not just places to work but also a way of expressing corporate identity and a means of attracting and retaining staff. At the offices of Bain & Company, a management consultancy, inspirational quotes on walls help workers to identify with Bain’s brand, explains Sam Axtell, the company’s operations director. Games rooms and relaxing spaces help them “release αwaves”.
Not everyone is delighted by the rise of cramped hot desks. At Broadcasting House, the BBC’s new offices in London, a shortage of good desks has led to frantic morning scrambles. A manager at a financial firm in the City complains that since his firm redesigned its office, there are only enough phones for one between two. KPMG has seen crushes at lifts and in the canteen; the crowds have also put pressure on the air-conditioning system.
21. It can be known that “Project gold” is a plan for .
[A] bank robberies
[B] military attacks
[C] squeezing employees
[D] squeezing working spaces
22. Better IT systems mean that workers .
[A] are tied to a particular desk
[B] are in the office all the day
[C] can work at home
[D] need more desks
23. All of the following are forms of new offices behind the squashing EXCEPT .
[A] noisy spaces
[B] collaborative spaces
[C] breakout spaces
[D] quiet rooms
24. Office in this happy new world is .
[A] just a place to work
[B] a place to attract new workers
[C] a place with little corporate identity
[D] a place to increase pressure
25. The examples of Broadcasting House and KPMG are used to explain that .
[A] morning scrambles are in all the places
[B] all the offices need to be redesigned
[C] not everyone is satisfied with the increasing cramped hot desks
[D] companies need to reduce the number of employees